Until the onset of the crisis, European banks had met this need by tapping the interbank market ($432 billion) and by borrowing from central banks ($386 billion), and used FX swaps ($315 billion) to convert (primarily) domestic currency funding into dollars. If we assume that these banks liabilities to money market funds (roughly $1 trillion, Baba et al (2009)) are also short-term liabilities, then the estimate of their US dollar funding gap in mid-2007 would be $2.02.2 trillion. Were all liabilities to non-banks treated as short-term funding, the upper-bound estimate would be $6.5 trillion (Figure 5, bottom right panel). One thing to keep in mind as reading the above (and the linked article as a refresher ), is that the massive USD synthetic short, and resulting margin call, was entirely due to the actions of commercial banks, with central banks having to step in subsequently and bail them out using any and every (such as FX swaps) mechanism possible. * * * Why do we bring all of this up now, nearly 6 years later? Because, as JPM observed over the weekend while looking at the dollar fx basis, the shortage in dollar funding is back and is accelerating at pace not seen since the Lehman collapse.
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